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Air pollution: Confounding factors for study

Air pollution confounding factors The Kincade Fire in northern Sonoma County started on October 23, 2019, was contained on Nov. 6 but continued to burn and affect the test location during and after the SSHS study was finished. Because PM 2.5 is a potent inflammatory agent, a monitoring device was purchased to track indoor air […]

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Inflammation, PM2.5 and serious health effects

Particulate pollution, especially those of 2.5 microns or smaller — has been demonstrated to cause, promote, or aggravate numerous serious health effects including inflammation and specific syndromes involving the immune system, diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease as well as neurological and psychological maladies. Reid CE, Brauer M, Johnston FH, Jerrett M, Balmes JR, […]

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Biomedical science and pharmaceutical research embrace n-of-1 trials

The use and scientific acceptance  of  “n-of-1” trials have accelerated in recent years, especially in connection with personalized medicine and drug discovery. This increase in interest and acceptance is reflected in the number of studies on the field. A Google Scholar search (July 26, 2020) for “n-of-1 trial validity” for all date ranges, yielded 3,430 […]

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Additional posts incorporated in or used as references in primary articles

Primary articles Results of Proof-of-concept study indicate that hsCRP may be valid indicator of Bisphenol A contamination, but finds that ubiquitous co-confounding factors may invalidate most dietary interventions Significant changes necessary in order for dietary intervention studies to be causal and replicable Supplementary/ reference articles How food processing adds plastic-derived chemical contamination How does the […]

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Recent dietary interventions relevant to Plastic-Derived Chemicals

el, R.A., Gray, J.M., Engel, C.L., Rawsthorne, T.W., Dodson, R.E., Ackerman, J.M., Rizzo, J., Nudelman, J.L., and Brody, J.G. 2011. Food packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl) Phthalate exposure: Findings from a dietary intervention. Environmental Health Perspectives 119(7): 914-920.  Sathyanarayana, S., Alcedo, G., Saelens, B.E., Zhou, C., Dills, R.L., Yu, J., and Lanphear, B. 2013. […]

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Significant changes necessary in order for dietary intervention studies to be causal and replicable

Dietary intervention studies as a whole are inherently flawed and do not produce causal or clinically relevant health recommendations or decisions. Accuracy and replicability of any study depend upon using precise methods under identical conditions using identical materials, reagents, apparatus, and test subjects. Unfortunately, human dietary intervention studies in the scientific literature are fatally confounded […]

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Accounting for unknown interactions of co-coexisting factors that confounded causality conclusions in two studies

Dietary interventions as now conducted are incapable of rendering valid causal conclusions about specific substances, compounds, or chemicals. This is because the near-infinite variations in foods produce unknown and unknowable co-contamination errors that are further confounded by preparation inconsistencies. This can be illustrated by comparing two recent dietary intervention studies — one studying Plastic-Derived Chemicals […]

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Recent dietary interventions for BPA/Phthalates

Rudel, R.A., Gray, J.M., Engel, C.L., Rawsthorne, T.W., Dodson, R.E., Ackerman, J.M., Rizzo, J., Nudelman, J.L., and Brody, J.G. 2011. Food packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl) Phthalate exposure: Findings from a dietary intervention. Environmental Health Perspectives 119(7): 914-920.  Sathyanarayana, S., Alcedo, G., Saelens, B.E., Zhou, C., Dills, R.L., Yu, J., and Lanphear, B. 2013. […]

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Black Box meals: Lessons from five dietary intervention studies.

Black Box: “A complex system or device whose internal workings are hidden or not readily understood.” (From Oxford.)   Dietary intervention black boxes are those in which catering companies, institutional food preparers or even test subjects create meals whose sourcing, preparation, cooking, and serving details are mostly unknown and unguided by investigators. At best, food […]

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Dosing of a single compound to establish causality in dietary interventions & enable clinically valid health decisions.

“Inconsistent and contradictory results from nutrition studies conducted by different investigators continue to emerge, in part because of the inherent variability of natural products, as well as the unknown and therefore uncontrolled variables in study populations and experimental designs.” — The Challenge of Reproducibility and Accuracy in Nutrition Research: Resources and Pitfalls Dietary studies are […]

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